Saving energy, protecting the environment, and meeting people's demands for higher and higher lighting quality are the tenets of green lighting. However, with the advent of various new types of energy-saving electric light sources, the environmental pollution caused by harmful substances in the process of production and use should also attract our attention.
At present, the use of harmful substances in electric light source products in China is worrying, especially in the gas discharge light source products which are more and more popular at present, the pollution of mercury is more serious. In order to fully understand the current pollution situation of China's lighting industry and prepare for the formulation of relevant environmental protection policies and measures, the National Development and Reform Commission/UNDP/GEF former China Green Lighting Project Promotion Project Office conducted a special investigation and collected domestic Other information on governance methods and experience has put forward many suggestions for strengthening pollution control in China's lighting industry.
1 Pollution status of China's electric light source products
The main harmful substances in electric light source products include mercury, heavy metal lead and non-metallic substances such as arsenic, which are harmful substances that pollute the environment and endanger human health. Since the electric light source product is different from other products, the elements of the composition are different, and the content of harmful substances is also different. The electric light source containing mercury mainly includes fluorescent lamps, high pressure mercury lamps, neon lights and the like.
At present, a T12 fluorescent lamp with a diameter of 36mm in China contains about 25~45mg of mercury; a T5 fluorescent lamp with a diameter of 16mm contains about 20mg of mercury; and a compact fluorescent lamp with a diameter of 10mm contains mercury. It is about 10mg. In China, about 1 billion fluorescent lamps were produced in 2004, and the average mercury content of each lamp was 30 mg. The total amount of mercury contained in fluorescent lamps produced in China in 2004 was about 30 tons.
However, the mercury consumed in the actual production process is much larger than this figure. The reasons are mainly the unreasonable control of mercury injection and the high rate of product scrapping during production. Taking a 40W T12 straight tube fluorescent lamp as an example, automatic injection of mercury through an automatic production line requires injection of 20-40 mg of mercury, plus process consumption, and the actual mercury consumption is 60-100 mg. At present, a large number of electric light source manufacturers in China use liquid mercury when injecting mercury, so the amount of mercury injected is difficult to control, and the equipment is simple, and the mercury volatilization in the process of mercury injection is quite serious. Therefore, the actual mercury consumption of each fluorescent lamp produced in China is 45.04~48.00mg, and the annual consumption of 1 billion fluorescent lamps consumes about 47~60t. According to forecasts, from 2006 to 2015, China's fluorescent lamp production will reach 1.5 to 2 billion. If the average mercury content of the product and the average mercury consumption during production remain at current levels, then by the end of 2006, the annual output of fluorescent lamps will be The total mercury content will reach 45t, and the amount of mercury consumed in production will reach 70t. By 2015, the total mercury content in annual fluorescent lamps will be as high as 60~90t. This number is really worrying.
Developed countries have paid attention to environmental protection issues. In the production of fluorescent lamps, liquid mercury has been banned, and solid amalgams, metal mercury packages, etc. have been used, or the production of fluorescent lamps has been stopped. At the same time, strict recycling measures have been established for used lamps to prevent disability. Mercury flows in air and water.
Mercury-containing lighting appliances generally do not pollute during use. The pollution during use is mainly caused by the diffusion of mercury caused by the breakdown of lighting appliances, which causes air pollution. This situation does not occur often, so there is not much environmental protection during use. Impact.
In 2004, China's scrapped mercury-containing lighting appliances were equivalent to about 600 million standard fluorescent lamps, and the amount of mercury released into the atmosphere due to improper disposal was 45-50t. At present, our country has not yet formulated effective measures for the recycling of scrap lighting appliances, nor has it established a recycling system and recycling agency that meets the characteristics of the end-of-life lighting appliances. The mercury in the scrapped lighting appliances is randomly diffused into the air, and the impact on the environment and the damage are very large.
In recent years, China's electric light source products have developed rapidly. By 2003, the total output of various types of electric light sources in China was nearly 10 billion, of which nearly 2 billion were produced by gas discharge sources. Through calculation, it can be found that the total amount of mercury used in gas discharge lamps produced in 2003 is about 30t, but the amount of mercury consumed in the actual production process exceeds 60t due to production methods and process methods. That is to say, the mercury contained in the discharge lamps that are finally put on the market is only about 30 tons, and the mercury emissions generated by these products are more than 2 billion cubic meters, and the mercury wastewater exceeds 1,000,000 tons. The slag formed by the exhaust pipe and the broken lamp tube is far more than 10,000 tons. The total amount of mercury in the waste is expected to be around 30 tons. The growth rate of China's electric light source products is very fast. If we do not improve the current production technology and means, and do not try to adopt new environmentally friendly materials, then with the increasing output of electric light source products, mercury pollution will become increasingly serious.
Electric light source products are generally glass products, usually lead glass, lead glass is divided into light red (low lead) glass, medium red (medium lead) glass and heavy red (high lead) glass according to PbO content. . The lead content of low lead glass is about 11%, the lead in 20%, and the high lead is above 28%. Because of the need for glass processing, incandescent lamps and various fluorescent lamp stems use lead glass, which is generally low lead glass with a lead content of about 11%. However, the core of the fluorescent automatic production line with a speed higher than 1200/h uses a lead-containing glass with 20% lead and even 28% high-lead glass. The outer glass bulbs of incandescent and straight tube fluorescent lamps are made of soda lime glass, while the circular fluorescent lamps and compact fluorescent lamps are made of low-lead glass tubes. In 2003, China produced 1.85 billion fluorescent lamps with about 100,000 tons of lead glass, plus about 120,000 tons of lead glass for 4.1 billion incandescent bulbs. In 2003, lead glass for various electric light sources was 220,000 tons. about. Even with all low lead glass, the PbO used exceeded 20,000 tons. In addition, incandescent lamps, self-ballasted fluorescent lamps, and screw and bayonet caps for high-intensity discharge lamps use lead glass as an insulator for the lamp legs. Although the amount of each lamp is small, the total output of these lamps is close to 5 billion, and the total amount is also considerable. The lead in lead glass is introduced by adding red dan or lead silicate during the batching. The dust of red dan and the lead smoke emitted during the melting process of the glass will pollute the environment. If the electric light source product is discarded after use, the lead oxide in the lead glass will be slowly replaced and precipitated and pollute the environment. The electric light source product also contains harmful substance arsenic, which is mainly brought in by the use of chalk as a clarifying agent in the glass melting process. The amount of arsenic remaining in the glass is generally about several thousand ppm, which exceeds the requirement of some large companies in the world to have an arsenic content of less than 1,000 ppm. At present, only a few companies in China produce arsenic in glass for electric light source that meets this standard and is exclusively used by the above companies for procurement. Most glass tubes produced by companies still use chalk as a clarifying agent, so that the arsenic content in the glass far exceeds the standard.
What is even more surprising is that some fluorescent lamps in the market are found to contain chalk in the insulating sheet of the lamp cap, and the content thereof is as high as 30,000 ppm (ppm is a unit indicating the solubility). 800 million straight tube fluorescent lamps need to use 570t insulation board, which contains as much as 17t of white enamel. Since arsenic is introduced during the melting of the glass, a large amount of As203 is emitted to the atmosphere when the glass is melted. Moreover, in the dosing, As203 is also doped into the dust of the raw material to diffuse into the air, seriously polluting the environment. It can be seen that the current situation of mercury, lead, arsenic and other harmful substances contained in China's electric light source products is relatively serious and must be taken seriously.
2 Relevant situation of pollution source pollution at home and abroad
2.1 Domestic pollution control situation
At present, the production and use of straight fluorescent tubes in China ranks first in the world, but the recycling status of scrap lamps is not satisfactory. Most of them are imported into landfills with domestic garbage, and the mercury released every year. The amount of compounds is in the range of 100 tons, which seriously pollutes the soil and groundwater sources and chronically poisons human health. The relevant departments are actively planning the recycling system of waste lamps and bulbs. The treatment of waste lamps mainly includes two processes: â€œdirect crush separationâ€ and â€œcut end purge separationâ€. "Direct crushing separation" is characterized by compact structure, small footprint and low investment, but the phosphor can not be reused; and "cut-end purge separation" can effectively collect and collect rare earth phosphors that can be recycled, but invest Larger. At present, the main component of the fluorescent powder used in China's straight fluorescent tubes is calcium halophosphate, and the economic recovery value is low. It is better to use the "direct crushing separation" lamp treatment and recycling process.
In order to promote and realize the harmless and resource-based disposal of domestic waste lamps, several lamp recycling companies have also been established in China. However, these companies still have some difficulties in operation. For example, the value of the lamp itself is very low, the cost of recycling is very high, and the lamp is difficult to collect in a centralized manner; At present, some large-scale lighting manufacturers such as Philips, Panasonic, GE, etc. have begun to recycle used lamps, mainly through the recycling of used lamps through their own sales channels, but only limited to the lamps produced by their own manufacturers.
2.2 Foreign pollution control
Sweden adopts a sales system recycling and community recycling two parallel recycling channels for used household appliances, which are combined to form an effective recycling system. When the seller sells electronic and electrical products, the customer can return the old electronic and electrical products with similar functions for free, that is, â€œreplacementâ€ through the store, or collect and recycle at the designated collection point, and then the manufacturer is responsible for (or entrusting others). Shipped to the pretreatment plant for dismantling; another channel is for the local government to provide a fully enclosed container to collect waste electrical and Electronic Products that consumers cannot â€œreplaceâ€, and each garbage collection point is equipped with a recycling container for waste household appliances. Disposers can only be placed inside and can not be taken outside to prevent the re-inflow of used household appliances into society.
There is a garbage sorting station in every 4~5 communities, where there is a dedicated space for stacking, sorting and sorting the used household appliances from the garbage collection stations before sending them to the pretreatment plant. For those who have used garbage appliances in garbage trucks, they will be severely punished. Judging from the current recycling situation, most of the used household appliances are collected by collection points, that is, mainly based on community recycling. Community recycling is organized and managed by local governments, and the cost of collecting used household appliances is also borne by local governments. Another part is sent directly to the treatment plant by the enterprise that produces e-waste. The manufacturer is responsible for organizing the collection of used household appliances and taking all the recycling costs, including: return charges, transportation fees, logistics costs from collection points or garbage sorting stations. Surcharges, collection fees, information fees, etc. The recycling rate of used household appliances in Sweden is relatively high. The EU has introduced regulations requiring a recycling rate of 4 to 6 kg per person per year, and Sweden actually can reach 10 kg. The cost of recycling used household appliances in 2001 was about 200 million Swedish kronor.
At present, the main way to recycle used household appliances in Germany is to disperse it from households at collection points in the community. The transport company transports it to the sorting center for sorting and then passes it to the pretreatment plant for processing. The recycling fee is paid by the community (expended from the cleaning fee paid by the resident). In the future, after the waste household recycling method is enacted, the collection fee will be paid only from the resident cleaning fee, and the cost of transportation, recycling, dismantling, landfill, etc. from the collection point will be borne by the manufacturer. The other way is to send the manufacturers of used household appliances directly to the processing plant, which currently accounts for a considerable proportion. The macro-control index for the recycling of used household appliances issued by the German government in 2001 to each state is 5kg per person per year, but the recycling situation varies greatly from state to state. The low annual per capita is less than 1kg and the high is 10kg. The main reason is that the policies implemented are different. In areas where consumers are required to pay for the disposal of used household appliances, the recycling situation is not satisfactory and the recycling amount is very low. In areas where there is no charge, the amount of recycling is better. This shows that even in developed countries, there are certain difficulties in implementing the payment system for used household appliances.
The main business of Nomura Kosei Co., Ltd. in the Hokkaido Mountains of Japan is a waste battery treatment and waste fluorescent lamp treatment, with a total of 110 employees. The company was built here because of the discovery of Japan's first mercury mine. Nomura's annual production of waste batteries from the country reaches 13,000 tons, accounting for 20% of the national waste batteries. The collection method is 93% collected by private environmental organizations and 7% collected by various manufacturers. This business was carried out in 1985 and the amount of purification has been increasing. Nomura Industrial Co., Ltd. uses its favorable conditions for the production of mercury, and its ability to process 10 million/year waste fluorescent tubes in Hokkaido's relying on the model card, according to the government's enactment of regulations, the need for increased recycling, in December 2001 The investment of 600 million yen, adding 22.5 million / year of processing capacity, so that the processing volume in 2002 has reached 7300t (equivalent to 36.5 million), while obtaining the right to handle the waste fluorescent tubes imported from the Philippines.
NKK Environmental, a subsidiary of NKK Japan, which is responsible for the recycling of waste plastics, introduced the recycling device for waste fluorescent tubes from Germany as early as 2000, and made full use of its recycling sites and logistics systems for recycling waste plastics in the Kanto region. With 10,000 lamps, the benefits are good. In 2002, it expanded to 8 million. The regeneration method is that the two ends of the lamp tube are cut off first, and the mercury-containing phosphor powder is blown out after being blown into the pressure air, and then the mercury is recovered by the vacuum heater, and the purity is up to 99.9%, and then concentrated and refined. For use in other industrial products. Phosphors and glass tubes can also be recycled.
Kobe Steel, a subsidiary of Kobe Steel, developed a new technology for recycling various materials from waste fluorescent tubes in 2001, that is, a recycling plant was built in the Hyogo Broadcasting Plant to focus on recycling waste fluorescent lamps in the Kansai region. In 2001, sales reached 250 million yen. The next step is to expand the scope of recycling. It is estimated that sales will reach 2 billion yen in 2007. The specific treatment method is to first cut off the sealing ends of the lamp tube, and then use special method to blow air into the phosphor powder piled up on the glass tube separately, and then pulverize the glass tube into 3cm2 pieces, which will be piled on the slide and The mercury on the seal is evaporated by vacuum in a heating machine and concentrated into high-purity mercury in the device. At the same time, the rare metal in the phosphor and the aluminum and glass on the seal are recovered for reuse by relevant departments.
Japanâ€™s Kyushu Electric Power Companyâ€™s Dingli Labyz, a subsidiary of Kitakyushu City, also participated in the recycling of waste fluorescent tubes in 2001, handling about 500,000 used lamps. It is characterized in that after the waste fluorescent tube is decomposed, a part of the available parts and materials are used to make a regenerative fluorescent tube for sale. If the glass tubes are all made of old parts, the phosphors are mixed with 30% recycled products, the quality and price are equivalent to the new ones, and the users who supply the waste lamps are given priority, which is the first case in Japan. In 2001, 100,000 were sold, and in 2002 it was increased to 200,000.
Japan's Fujikura Co., Ltd. cooperated with large companies in the US regenerative equipment to develop a technology for recovering mercury from waste fluorescent tubes by gasification in 2001, which is 10% to 15% lower than the cost of the previous washing method. The construction of a mercury-containing water treatment plant has reduced investment by 1/2. In April 2002, the installation was completed at the Hanchuan Plant. In that year, 3 million used lamps were processed, and in 2004, it reached 6 million.
Matsushita Electric Co., Ltd., which produces fluorescent lamps, has been renting fluorescent lamps since 2001 and has begun to establish recycling devices. It is planned to process all fluorescent lamps that have been produced and discarded after 2007.
3 Countermeasures to solve the environmental pollution problem in China's lighting electrical industry
In order to control and improve the generation and spread of harmful substances in the production and use of electric light sources in China, the author proposes the following solutions.
3.1 Strengthen the management of production links, reduce the amount of mercury from the source
Strengthening the management of lighting electrical production enterprises from the production link, the main purpose is to reduce the use of mercury from the source of production links, thereby reducing the threat of mercury to the environment. Through the standardized management of production enterprises, improve the technology, process and equipment level of production enterprises, and improve the overall level of lighting electrical production industry, the main measures are to formulate industry development plans, clearly encourage development, deadlines for rectification and immediate elimination of technologies, processes and The corresponding enterprise, the administrative examination and approval system for the formulation and strict production.
3.2 Develop industry compulsory standards and establish mandatory product certification system
China has not yet had a mandatory standard for mercury content in fluorescent lamps. The actual situation in production is that the level of mercury in fluorescent lamps varies greatly, from 40 to 50 mg in high and below 5 mg in low. Controlling the amount of mercury in a light source is not a technical issue, but a matter of national policy and policy implementation. The use of amalgam and mercury pellets, which are now well-established in production technology, can effectively control the amount of mercury used. Amalgam and mercury pellet technology can control the mercury content in each lamp tube with great precision, greatly reducing the production process. The harmful effects of mercury vapors on the operation of mercury injecting workers also reduce the pollution of consumers in the products to consumers and the environment. The state should formulate and introduce standards for the use of mercury in lighting electric light sources as soon as possible and enforce them in the industry.
3.3 Regularly test the production environment of the production enterprise to assess its environmental impact
The national environmental protection department shall test and evaluate the production environment of the production enterprise on a regular or irregular basis. For enterprises that fail to meet the standards, different penalties shall be imposed according to the degree of environmental pollution.
3.4 Improve the construction of the recycling system
Strengthen education, expand publicity, let the society understand the harmfulness of mercury pollution after the breakdown of used gas discharge lamps, and encourage all sectors of society to support and cooperate with the recycling of used lamps. The state should use various media and environmental protection organizations to expand publicity, raise awareness of the pollution of scrapped lamps in the whole society, and enhance the scientific concept of recycling waste lamps. The main contents of education and publicity are the harmfulness of mercury, the content of mercury in lighting appliances, and how to properly dispose of lamps after retirement. In order to facilitate the smooth recycling of lighting appliances after scrapping, in the production process, some preparations should be made for the recycling work after scrapping. For example, the mercury content of the lamps should be marked on the lighting appliances, and the consumers should not be treated as domestic garbage after being scrapped, and marked. Information on the contact information of the designated recycling agency and recycling agency of the brand.
3.5 Implementation of the production responsibility extension system
It is clear that the responsibility for the recycling of the discarded lighting appliances, that is, the recycling of the lighting appliances is the responsibility of the manufacturer of the lighting appliances. Manufacturers can establish their own recycling and processing institutions, or they can entrust other lighting electrical professional recycling companies to handle them. However, such lighting electrical recycling companies must have corresponding qualifications, and their establishment must be strictly examined and approved by the national environmental protection management department.
At the same time, the state must also conduct very strict qualification examinations for lighting electrical appliance manufacturers, implement a licensing system, and have the ability to recycle as a key item. They do not have the ability to establish recycling companies without entrusting them to be qualified. Enterprises that are processed by the recycling company will not issue production licenses. If the professional recycling company of lighting equipment is entrusted to carry out recycling treatment, the recycling cost shall be borne by the manufacturer.
3.6 Improve the recycling system of scrapped lamps
Establish a community-based recycling network. The use of lighting fixtures is mainly concentrated in urban office buildings, hotels, residential quarters, etc. The proportion of rural residents using mercury-containing fluorescent lamps is not high. Therefore, the recycling of lighting appliances is mainly concentrated in cities. In order to improve the recovery rate of lighting appliances, it is recommended to establish a recycling network of scrap lamps together with property companies in office buildings and residential quarters as a supplement to the production responsibility extension system. Recycling bins for scrap lamps are set up in various communities and managed by the property company and recycled regularly.
Establish scrap recycling points at the lighting appliance sales point. When a seller sells a mercury-containing lighting electric light source. Establish a recycling network parallel to the sales network. Give full play to the role of environmental protection volunteers, on the one hand, publicize the hazards of used lamps; on the other hand, mobilize all sectors of society to collect used lamps.
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