The problems of food, energy, resources, environment and population that human beings currently face are closely related to agricultural production, and illumination is the primary factor affecting plant growth and development. Therefore, in-depth study of the demand characteristics and laws of agricultural lighting on light The light control benchmark, innovative development of intelligent control fill light system suitable for agricultural lighting, providing an efficient lighting environment for agricultural lighting is an important task. As air pollution is increasing, the atmospheric transparency coefficient is declining, and the solar energy that plants can receive is becoming less and less, directly affecting their growth and development. The application of supplemental light control technology to agricultural cultivation can improve the photosynthesis efficiency of crops, promote growth and reduce the use of pesticides, and facilitate the development of efficient and pollution-free modern agriculture. The development of modern production and management models such as facility agriculture, sightseeing agriculture, soilless cultivation and precision agriculture is a milestone in modern agricultural models.
1. Features and advantages
1.1 fill light features
Plants use sunlight for photosynthesis, and the absorbed visible light spectrum is 380-760 nm, and the absorption peak region is red orange light with wavelength of 610-720 nm and blue-violet light of 400-510 nm. The continuous rainy weather affects the growth and development of plants, and the research and development of intelligent control of fill light will solve this problem. The development of agricultural planting technology that is not affected by the weather will become a new direction.
The main factors affecting the fill light in the greenhouse are light quality, light intensity and photoperiod. The photosynthesis of crops is suitable for the compensation of canopy light intensity of 1 000-3 000 lx, and various crops have specific requirements for red and blue light (R/B). In addition, the phenomenon of day and night alternating and recurring in nature has formed the requirements of photoperiod, and crops have adapted to this change in the long process of evolution. However, before and after the winter solstice or even cloudy days, natural light can not meet the growth and development needs of crops, it is necessary to increase the illumination time by artificial light supplement. In recent years, greenhouse fill light has become an important means of agricultural production.
1.2 Efficient intelligent system
A plant growth control system consisting of a control front end (smartphone, tablet or control platform), sensor (Sensor), fieldbus (Fieldbus) and LED lights is shown in Figure 1. Smartphones, tablets (embedded in Android or iOS operating systems) control the terminal through the Wi-Fi wireless connection control platform. The built-in dedicated communication module of the terminal connects up to 100 LED lights through ZigBee (any group can be set, the maximum distance between the lamps is 15 m) or single point access, and can also be used for sensors, oxygenation, watering and roller blinds. System control. The system uses sensors to monitor data such as ambient temperature, humidity and pH of nutrient solution, collects them into the database through software, and instructs the fertilization irrigation system to perform precise fertilization irrigation on the plants in a timed, quantitative and sub-section, and uses the sensors for system monitoring. According to the growth requirements of plants, remote control of LED lamp timing, switching, dimming and color grading is carried out, and plant growth and flowering cycles are regulated by Light recipes (LR).
For different application programs and places, LED fill light lighting products are available in a variety of varieties. Light bulbs, panel lights, floodlights, strips and light strips are typical LED applications in plant factories, combined with the application of intelligent control systems to make agricultural lighting systems more efficient and energy efficient.
A rice cooker or rice steamer is an automated kitchen appliance designed to boil or steam rice. It consists of a heat source, a cooking bowl, and a thermostat. The thermostat measures the temperature of the cooking bowl and controls the heat. Complex rice cookers may have many more sensors and other components, and may be multipurpose. Cooking rice has traditionally required constant attention to ensure the rice was cooked properly, and not burnt. Electric rice cookers automate the process by mechanically or electronically controlling heat and timing, thus freeing up a heating element on the cooking range that had to be otherwise occupied for rice cooking. Although the rice cooker does not necessarily speed up the cooking process, with an electric rice cooker the cook's involvement in cooking rice is reduced to simply measuring the rice, preparing the rice properly and using the correct amount of water. Once the rice cooker is set to cook, the rice will be cooked with no further attention.
For modern home rice cookers, the smallest single-person model cooks 1 rice cup (180 ml), whereas large models can cook 10 cups. Commercial models can cook 20 or more cups. As a possible source of confusion, model specifications and names may list either cooked or uncooked capacity. Rice roughly doubles in size during cooking; therefore, a 10 cup (uncooked) rice cooker can produce up to 20 cups of cooked rice. The prices vary greatly, depending on the capacity, features, materials used, and the country of origin.
The majority of modern electric rice cookers are equipped with a stay-warm or keep-warm feature, which keeps the rice at an optimal temperature for serving without over-cooking it. Some gas cookers also have electric stay-warm mechanism. However, the usefulness of this feature degrades over time, a microwave may be more energy efficient or better suited to reheat rice that will sit longer than four hours.
Some rice cookers use induction heating, with one or more induction heaters directly warming the pot. This can improve energy efficiency.
Most modern rice cookers use aluminium for the inner cooking bowl. There are some models that use stainless steel instead of aluminium. Various other materials, such as copper, pure carbon, ceramic, and diamond powder coating, may be used for higher heat conductivity or better taste.
The pressure-cooking models can raise the water's boiling point higher, e.g., from 100 Â°C at 1.0 atm up to about 110 Â°C at 1.4 atm, which speeds cooking. The pressure-cooking models can also be used in high altitude areas, where the boiling temperature is below 100 Celsius. Pressure cookers are also suitable for cooking brown rice (which contains oils and bran fiber that cook differently from pure white rice starch). Some pressure rice cookers have a varying pressure control mechanism (named the "dual-pressure" method) that creates repeated pressure/release cycles during the cooking.
There also exist mechanisms to collect and return the boiled over liquid to the inner rice bowl.
Many cookers now have microprocessor-controlled cooking cycles, which are often used to adjust for rice and cooking type.
Rice cookers are typically used for the preparation of plain or lightly seasoned rice. Each rice cooker model may be optimized to cook a certain type of rice best. For example, most Japanese rice cookers are optimized for cooking Japanese rice and may not be the best for other types of rice, although cooking time can be lengthened simply by more water.
The typical method of cooking long grain rice is boil-and-strain and/or steaming method. The absorption method used in Japanese rice cookers will produce slightly different texture and taste, usually stickier rice.
Brown rice generally needs longer cooking times than white rice, unless it is broken or flourblasted (which perforates the bran).
Different varieties of rice need different cooking times, depending on their grain size, grain shape, and grain composition. There are three main types of Asian rice: Oryza sativa subsp. indica, i.e., Indian rice (long grain rice, e.g., basmati rice and Thai jasmine rice), O. sativa subsp. javanica, i.e., Java rice (large grain rice) and O. sativa subsp. japonica, i.e., Japanese rice (medium grain rice, e.g., Calrose rice, short grain rice, e.g., most Japanese rice and risotto rice).
African rice, Oryza glaberrima, is an entirely separate species, but can be cooked in the same way. Zizania is not even in the same genus, although it is often called a rice (or "water oats"); it, too, can also be cooked in a rice cooker.
A rice cooker can be used to cook many boiled or steamed granular foods, such as pot barley, bulgar wheat, and dal. Provided the ingredients have similar cooking times, a rice cooker can cook mixtures such as khichdi. Some rice cookers can be used as automated couscoussiers, cooking couscous and a stew simultaneously.
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