Qingdao Franck high frequency, T5 energy-saving lamps, spiral high-power energy-saving lamps,
U-type high-power energy-saving lamp, T5 to T8, replacement type, T5 fluorescent lamp
This paper briefly introduces the basic concepts of some physical quantities in the field of illumination, and briefly describes the points and differences between physical quantities. for reference:
Keywords: green lighting project, green lighting, light effect, luminous flux, visible light, invisible light, effective visual light effect, effective visual illumination, power replacement ratio, color rendering performance, color rendering index R value, stroboscopic effect, color table And color temperature, brightness and illuminance, light decay, luminous flux maintenance rate, life, failure rate
Description: Part of the physical quantity involved in this article, a description of its definition. From the perspective of guiding the promotion and application of energy-saving lamps, the general consumers, engineering companies and factory electrical equipment managers are the reading objects. Strive to be intuitive and popular, to illustrate its physical meaning. There is no pursuit (or avoidance) of the rigor of the word used in the definition of physical quantities in the professional scientific literature. The author of this article, Mr. Han Yurong, invites industry scholars, professionals, engineers and technicians to give a cool solution.
1. The Green Lighting Project refers to the promotion plan jointly promoted by the State Economic and Trade Commission and the United Nations Development Program to promote the development of the lighting industry and build a green lighting environment in the whole society.
Second, green lighting refers to the use of efficient green light source, scientific design, to build an efficient, energy-saving, bright, comfortable lighting environment.
Third, the goal of green lighting technology is: the light flux emitted by the light source is sufficient, the sunlight color, the visible light ratio is high, and the lighting environment is bright and comfortable.
The second is: the color of the sun, the color rendering performance is good, seeing any color does not produce color shift (no discoloration).
The third is: the luminous flux is stable, no fluctuation, no stroboscopic effect hazard, no light pollution, and the lighting environment is conducive to improving production efficiency.
The fourth is: the green light source directly replaces the traditional light source with a high proportion of power replacement and saves energy.
Fourth, the main physical quantity of green light source (a) light effect light efficiency: that is, the light energy generated by the light source per W electric power (commonly known as luminous flux), the unit: lumens / watt (Lm / w). The more light flux generated by the light source per W electric power, the higher the light efficiency, the higher the brightness, and the more energy is saved.
(2) The luminous energy generated by the luminous flux electric light source is called luminous flux and the unit is lumen (Lm). In a fixed space, the more luminous flux generated by the electric light source, the brighter the visual perception of the surrounding environment.
(3) Light effect and luminous flux are different from light efficiency and luminous flux, which are two different physical concepts. However, it often creates confusion.
Light effect: It is a physical quantity that characterizes an electric light source and converts electrical energy into high efficiency of light energy.
Luminous flux: Characterized by an electric light source that produces the sum of the emitted light energy in accordance with a given luminous efficacy and electrical power.
In the actual lighting application design, when identifying the performance of the comparative electric light source technology, the concept of realistic and intuitive physical meaning should be: light effect.
(4) Spectral energy distribution and visible light The luminous flux generated by the light source includes visible light and invisible light. The high and low visible light ratio is determined by the spectral energy distribution ratio. Among the luminous fluxes of green light sources, the spectral energy distribution ratio is close to that of sunlight, and the proportion of visible light is high.
Only the proportion of visible light is high, and the effective visual light effect can be high. In the total luminous flux of a green light source, the ratio of visible light should be 3.5-8 times higher than that of a conventional light source.
The higher the visible light ratio, the higher the effective visual light effect and the higher the effective visual illumination, indicating that the technical performance of the electric light source is more advanced.
(5) Effective visual light effect: It is a physical concept that describes the performance of light source technology. However, in the actual lighting application design, the concept of realistic and visual physical meaning should be: effective visual light effect.
1. The light flux generated by the light source includes visible light and invisible light. Visible light is the light that the human eye can feel, and is the luminous flux we need for lighting. Invisible light, the human eye does not feel it.
2. The technical performance of the light source is different, and the spectral energy distribution ratio is different. Among the luminous fluxes generated, the ratios of visible light and invisible light are different, and the difference is large.
3, the usefulness of the light source is lighting, lighting is for the human eye. The human eye feels the luminous flux, which is the physical quantity that is truly positive.
4. At this stage, instruments for measuring luminous flux, such as illuminance meters, are essentially a photovoltaic cell. The working principle is to convert the luminous flux into a current value according to a certain photoelectric function relationship. Then, according to a certain current digital display function relationship, the number corresponding to the luminous flux is visually displayed.
The photovoltaic cell type measuring instrument for measuring luminous flux cannot distinguish between visible light and invisible light. It only displays the visible light and invisible light as a corresponding number.
5. At this stage, the measurement comparison criteria that people have formed form that the larger the measured value, the brighter the light source. In essence, there is a misunderstanding of the technical concept.
6. If the physical concept of light effect is used, and the ordinary measuring instrument for measuring luminous flux at the present stage, the luminous efficacy of different kinds of light sources is described. There is bound to be such a contrast. That is: the light source with high luminous efficiency (measured value), the effective visual brightness and effective visual illumination perceived by the human eye are not high; on the contrary, the light source with low luminous effect (measured value) is felt by the human eye. Effective visual brightness and effective visual illumination are high.
For example, use the same meter that measures the luminous flux to measure high-pressure mercury lamps and energy-saving lamps. The contrast between this measured value and the visual is very significant. Use the same meter that measures the luminous flux to measure the T8 fluorescent lamp and the energy saving lamp separately. The contrast between this measured value and the visual is also very obvious.
7. When the light source is used for illumination, visible light is the required luminous flux. Therefore, the amount of visible light contained in the light source is the determining factor of the effective visual efficacy of the light source. We should identify the comparison, and it should be the ratio of the visible light contained in the light source.
8. In order to identify the proportion of visible light contained in the comparative light source, the physical concept of effective visual light effect is now introduced. Effective visual efficacy: Characterizes the proportion of visible light in a unit of luminous flux in the luminous flux produced by a light source.
When the luminous flux is constant, the higher the visible light ratio, the higher the effective visual light effect, the higher the actual effective visual illumination, and the more advanced the technical performance of the light source.
(6) Power substitution ratio light effect and effective visual light effect. These two physical concepts are relatively abstract, and the actual use requires measurement instruments and complicated scientific calculations. And after completing the measurements and related calculations, there is still no intuitive physical concept.
In the design of realistic lighting power-saving renovation engineering, a scientific concept and method that is scientific and intuitive, and has strong operability to identify and compare the effective visual light effect of the light source is needed. To this end, the physical concept of power replacement ratio is introduced.
Power substitution ratio: It is a physical concept and method for visually identifying and comparing different kinds of light sources and effective visual light effects.
Introduce the scientific and feasibility analysis of the physical concept of power replacement ratio:
1. The physical concept of power substitution ratio is based on traditional electric light sources that have been used for many years, such as high-pressure mercury lamps and T8 fluorescent lamps, to identify and compare certain new light sources, such as technical performance and technical quality of energy-saving lamps. Good and bad physical concepts and methods.
2. Traditional electric light sources, such as high pressure mercury lamps and T8 fluorescent lamps. It has been widely used for many years and people are very used to it. In daily work, when evaluating a new light source, it is natural to use traditional electric light sources, such as high-pressure mercury lamps and T8 fluorescent lamps as standards to identify and compare.
3. New light sources, such as energy-saving lamps. Its technical application positioning is to directly replace traditional electric light sources, such as high-pressure mercury lamps and T8 fluorescent lamps.
4. Use new light sources, such as energy-saving lamps. Direct replacement of traditional electric light sources, such as high pressure mercury lamps, T8 fluorescent lamps. People need to identify the technical indicators of comparison, which is the lighting effect and how much energy is saved. That is: how many times the electric power is saved under the premise that the effective visual illumination is the same or improved, that is, the power replacement ratio.
5, power replacement ratio, this identification comparison method. It seems rough but very accurate. Because it accurately grasps two practical elements:
(1) Effective visual illumination value. Namely: the actual lighting effect of the work surface.
(2) Power saving effect. That is: how much electric power is saved under the premise that the actual lighting effect of the work surface is the same.
6, power replacement ratio, this identification comparison method. It seems simple, but very practical. No need for complex instrumentation and no complicated scientific engineering calculations. Just a human eye can be visually identified and compared.
7, power replacement ratio, this identification comparison method. It doesn't seem to have any technical content, but it has very practical physical meaning. Because the usefulness of the light source is illumination, the illumination is for the human eye. The human eye feels the luminous flux, which is the physical quantity that is truly positive.
8. The sensitivity of the human eye to visible light appears to be inaccurate, but actually very accurate. In particular, people who work on the work surface for a long time will be aware of small changes in the effective visual illumination of the work surface.
(7) Spectral energy distribution and color rendering performance The color rendering performance is a physical quantity that characterizes the ability of the light source to display the original color of the surface of the object. The high and low color rendering performance of the light source is determined by the spectral energy distribution ratio. In the luminous flux of a green light source, the spectral energy distribution ratio is close to that of sunlight. In this way, when viewing the color of the surface of the object, the color of the surface of the object can be displayed without causing color shift or discoloration.
In order to express the performance of color rendering, the concept of color rendering index R value is introduced. With the solar light R=100 as the standard, the R value of the green light source should be: Râ‰¥85. The larger the color rendering index R value of the light source, the better the color rendering performance of the light source.
(8) Color table and color temperature 1, color table. The green light source produces a luminous flux that must have sufficient brightness and a good color. One of the meanings of color: the color of the surface of the light source seen by the human eye, called the color table of the light source.
The color table of the light source is determined by the spectral energy distribution ratio of the light source. Different spectral energy distribution ratios have different color tables. The spectral energy distribution ratio of the light source is closer to the spectral energy distribution ratio of the sunlight, and the color table of the light source is better. On the contrary, it is worse.
Measuring the quality and difference of the light source color table is based on sunlight. The color of the surface of the light source is closer to the color of the sunlight, and the color table of the light source is good. On the contrary, it is worse. For example, the surface of a high-pressure sodium lamp is yellow-orange, the color is different from the sunlight, and the color table is poor. The surface of the high-pressure mercury lamp is white and white, the color is less different from the sunlight, and the color meter is better than the high-pressure sodium lamp.
The spectral energy distribution ratio of high-quality energy-saving lamps is basically the same as the spectral energy distribution ratio of sunlight. The color of the surface of the energy-saving lamp is close to the color of the sun. The lighting effect is bright and comfortable.
2, color temperature. The color table of the light source is described by color temperature.
The color temperature concept is: the color of the surface of the illuminator, when the black body is closest to the color radiated at a certain temperature, the temperature of the black body at that moment is defined as the color temperature of the illuminant. The color temperature is in K-temperature and the code is 0K.
The color temperature of the light source is divided into low color temperature, medium color temperature, and high color temperature.
Low color temperature (2700 0K-3500 0K): contains more red and orange light. It is like the sun around 8 o'clock in the morning, giving people a warm, gentle beauty.
Medium color temperature (3500 0K-5000 0K): The red, blue and Other light colors contained are more balanced, just like after 8:00 am, the sun before ten o'clock. Gives a gentle, comfortable beauty.
High color temperature (5000 0K-7000 0K): Contains more blue light, like after 10 o'clock in the morning, before 2 pm. Give people a bright, clear beauty.
The color temperature of the light source does not indicate the performance of the light source. The choice of the color temperature of the light source is mainly based on the needs of the application and the lighting target. For industrial and commercial environment lighting, it is required to be bright and comfortable, and a high color temperature light source should be used.
(9) The correlation between color table and color rendering performance and the color table and color rendering performance of different light sources are two physical concepts that are both related and different.
Correlation point 1: The color spectrum and color rendering performance are determined by the spectral energy distribution ratio. Different spectral energy distribution ratios have different color tables and color rendering properties.
Correlation point 2: Measure the light source color table is good and bad, and measure the light source performance of the light source is high and low. They are based on the color table and color rendering performance of the sun.
Different point 1: color table: is the physical quantity that characterizes the light on the surface of the light source, and the color is good and bad. Color rendering performance: It is a physical quantity that characterizes the light emitted by the light source onto the surface of the colored object and shows the original color ability of the surface of the object. The two physical quantities have different functions and different positions.
Difference 2: The physical quantity of the light source color meter is the color temperature. The physical quantity that measures the high and low color rendering performance of the light source is the color rendering index R value.
(10) The relationship between brightness and illuminance is different after scientific understanding of light effects and effective visual effects, luminous flux, color table and color temperature. The two physical quantities of brightness and illumination should be scientifically understood. Brightness and illuminance are two physical quantities that are both related and different.
1. Brightness: refers to the brightness of the light that the person feels when looking at the light source. The brightness is determined by the color temperature of the light source and the luminous flux of the light source. The luminous flux of the light source is a decisive factor. The light source has a large luminous flux and a high brightness.
2. Illuminance: refers to the luminous flux of the unit illuminated by the light source illuminating the surrounding space or the ground. The luminous flux on the illuminated area of â€‹â€‹the unit is large, and the illumination is high.
3. The correlation and difference between brightness and illuminance:
The associated point is that the physical quantities that affect the brightness of the light source and the level of illumination are common, namely: luminous flux.
Difference 1: The luminous flux that affects the brightness of the light source is the amount of light flux radiated from the surface of the light source.
Difference 2: The luminous flux that affects the illumination of the light source is the amount of light flux that the light source radiates onto the illuminated surface (such as walls, floors, work surfaces).
The location of the two is different, and the factors affected by the outside world are also different. The same light source, the luminous flux radiated from the surface of the light source, and the luminous flux radiated from the light source onto the illuminated surface (such as the wall, the ground, and the work surface) are not equal in quantity.
4, special instructions: the brightness of the light source visual sense, sometimes affected by color temperature. In a light source with the same luminous flux, a light source with a high color temperature produces a high-visual visual sense. This kind of "high-brightness" light source is not more efficient than other light sources, and its illumination is not higher than other light sources. It is just a glare "false light".
In the actual lighting application design, the illuminance is mainly evaluated, especially the effective visual illuminance, the level of this physical quantity.
(11) Light decay and luminous flux maintenance rate.
1. Light decay: After the light source is ignited for a period of time from the initial stage to the ignition, it converts the electrical energy into the efficiency reduction value of the light energy, which we call the light decay of the light source. The light decay of the light source is essentially the reduction of the light efficiency of the light source. Light decay is a physical quantity that characterizes the rate at which the light source is reduced in light efficiency.
2. Luminous flux maintenance rate: To visually describe the light decay of the light source, we introduce the concept of luminous flux maintenance rate. The luminous flux maintenance rate is a purely digital physical quantity that characterizes the extent to which the light source is reduced over a specified period of time (X hours).
For different light sources, the higher the luminous flux maintenance rate, the smaller the light decay of the light source during the same specified time (X hours).
Its mathematical expression is:
X-hour luminous flux maintenance rate = X hours luminous flux Ã· initial luminous flux Ã— 100%
(12) The stroboscopic and stroboscopic effect light sources emit light with unstable luminous flux, which is called stroboscopic. The hazard caused by stroboscopic is called the stroboscopic effect. The stroboscopic effect is essentially light pollution, which is extremely harmful. For details, see the article "On the Harmfulness of the Strobe Effect of Electric Light Sources and Improving Technical Countermeasures".
At present, widely used T8 straight tube fluorescent lamps (inductive), incandescent lamps, high pressure mercury lamps, sodium lamps, metal halide lamps and other electric light sources. The fluctuation range of the luminous flux is 55-65%, and the fluctuating frequency is 100 weeks per second. The stroboscopic effect is very harmful.
The technical measure to eliminate the stroboscopic effect is to increase the electric power frequency for driving the illuminant of the electric light source. The electric power frequency of the green light source that drives the electric light source to emit light should be above 40 KHz (thousands of weeks) (CE certification is above 40 KHz) to avoid the stroboscopic effect.
(13) Environmental adaptability The environment adaptability is a physical quantity that characterizes the technical performance of the light source in the actual application environment and can reliably ignite and ignite. The adaptability of the light source environment, including the grid environment and the space environment.
1. The light source should have the technical characteristics applied to the harsh grid environment, and should be able to reliably ignite and ignite in the power grid of 180V---260V voltage range with severe voltage drop and serious harmonics.
2. The light source should have the technical characteristics applied to the harsh space environment, and should be able to reliably ignite and ignite in the space of -15 Â° C - 10 50 Â° C. If it is used in the north, it should have good low temperature ignition characteristics. It can reliably ignite and ignite in a low temperature environment of -40 Â°C.
(14) Life and failure rate In the practical application of the light source, there will be two problems such as the length of the ignition time and the amount of damage during the ignition process. The length of time that the light source is ignited is the life, and the amount of damage is the failure rate.
The two physical concepts of failure rate and lifetime are both related and independent. In the lighting industry and users, the two are often confused or equivalent due to lack of scientific and correct understanding.
1. Lifetime: It is a physical quantity that characterizes the light source and can reliably start the ignition time in the actual use of the space environment and the power grid environment. Usually measured in hours (h). The concept of life has three in the lighting industry.
Qihui igniting life: refers to the time when the light source is ignited from Qihui to extinction. The end user usually understands the life of the light source in this way.
Average life expectancy: refers to the weighted average time of a batch of light sources, from ignition to extinction. The average life expectancy is usually used for sampling and evaluation, the life of a certain source of a certain type of product, a certain type of light source.
Effective life: refers to the time from the ignition of the ignition to the decay of the luminous flux to a specified value. Here, the meaning of "a certain prescribed value" is that the luminous flux is attenuated to several tens of percent of the initial value, that is, X%.
At this stage, the "a certain value" of the effective life of the light source is defined. The general rule is that the luminous flux is attenuated to fifty percent (50%) of the initial value.
Therefore, the effective life of the light source is defined as: the light source is ignited from the ignition to the attenuation of the luminous flux to fifty percent (50%) of the initial value, that is, it is recognized as the end of life.
2. Failure rate: The failure rate is a characterization of the light source. During the life span, due to the technical factors such as the electronic components of the energy-saving lamp, the technical quality of the fluorescent tube, and the technical performance of the whole lamp, the technical factors are not good. A physical quantity that causes the light source to fail to ignite.
Measuring the failure rate of an evaluation source is usually described by the percentage (%).
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Qingdao Frank (Microelectronics Co., Ltd.) Qingdao ASIC Design Studio High Frequency Light Source Division Contract Energy Management Mechanism Promotion Department High Frequency Light Source Design Engineer Han Yurong Headquarters Address: Qingdao Economic and Technological Development Zone West Yujiahe Electronics Industrial Park Production Base: Jiaoxi Industrial Zone, Qingdao Jiaozhou Bay Industrial Park E-mail: email@example.com
Tel:0532â€”8876 0830 Gsm
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