1 question raised
In some cities in China, due to historical and objective conditions, street lamps are often limited to providing identifiable basic needs for pedestrians and vehicles, while long-term neglect or even neglect the landscape of lamps. The unity and foundation of functional appeals often lead to simple and flat expressions. Some too simplistic forms may even hinder the normal functioning of lighting and cause adverse effects on the urban landscape.
With the development of the city and the improvement of people's living standards, the increase of urban night traffic and the rich form of night activities make people's functional requirements for outdoor night lighting no longer only satisfied with the illuminating environment, providing basic identifiability. At present, the landscape research of outdoor urban road lighting design in many cities in China is more focused on decorative and aesthetic effects. However, with the rapid development of urban lighting and the increasing variety of lamps provided by luminaires, some cities lack systematic, pertinent and scientific selection, updating, design and arrangement of street lamps. Some so-called "lighting projects" and "image projects" that are too much too fast cause the quality of urban external space lighting to be mixed, the street space is disorderly, the urban landscape intention is blurred or even missing, and the urban lighting construction improves the quality of people's living environment and promotes the city. The goal of economic development is contrary.
Therefore, how to avoid the extremes of simplicity, simplicity and even simplicity in the construction of urban lighting, to the other extreme of complexity, novelty and even vulgarity, to combine the lighting design of the road system with the lighting planning of the city, and the overall city. The planning is coordinated and adapted to the development of the city. The following attempts to analyze the relationship between urban landscape and road lighting, through practical case analysis to explore the landscape problems of road lighting design in urban lighting construction.
2 Landscape analysis of road lighting design
2.1 Road lighting is an integral part of urban lighting
Urban road space is the material expression of urban traffic characteristics, and is the most easily recognized and most memorable part of the city. People's perception of cities is often achieved through the perception of urban road space. Street lamps are the most important division and guiding elements in urban street space, forming the environmental characteristics of streets and squares. They are an indispensable element in urban street space and landscape organization, and also an important part of urban lighting design.
Urban road lighting is not independent of the urban landscape, but an important organic component of the urban landscape. Roads, plazas and buildings are the three main elements that make up the urban space. A wide variety of road lamps are also spread throughout the city with the roads and the plazas dotted around them. Therefore, no matter from the breadth of distribution space and location, the number of individuals and types, and the scale of their own in urban street space, road lamps are important factors that can not be ignored in urban landscape design. At night, the entire urban landscape completes an interesting spatial transformation due to artificial lighting: the building loses its sense of volume and weight and becomes more of a dramatic point, linear element, or enclosed. Surface elements; roads and squares in the outer space of the city have formed some kind of "negative space" due to artificial lighting. This "negative space" becomes the main body of urban function and landscape at this time, and the lighting function of road lamps is the basic and frame element of this "negative space".
2.2 The value orientation of road lighting design in urban landscape
As an inseparable part of urban landscape design, the basic starting point of urban road lighting landscape design is to be human-centered. It should consider the creation of urban material environment and rely on people's behavior and perception to consider people's activities. And the physical, psychological, and safety requirements of the person. The range is as large as the lighting system of the entire city, as small as the individual lamps of a certain street.
2.2.1æ˜¼â€”Landscape is hidden from functionality
Although road lamps are functional urban public facilities, what is really needed for people is the light from the lamps, not the lamps themselves. Therefore, during the day when there is sufficient natural light illumination, people may need to resort to some physical landscape characteristics inherent in the luminaire itself (the following content is discussed), but it is not necessary to over-emphasize the road luminaire as an artificial appliance, but As part of the urban landscape, â€œintegrateâ€ the entire urban street space background. Of course, this form of "integration" can be different, for example, it can be a kind of fusion inheritance, or it can be a kind of dialogue. However, no matter what form is adopted, this â€œintegrationâ€ is concealed or hidden from the functionality of road lamps, and its landscape is magnified or highlighted.
2.2.2 Night - Functionality to the extension of landscape
At night, road lights become the mainstay of urban lighting functions.
Streets, squares, and exterior spaces of buildings have been vitalized and energized because of the lighting of lamps, and they have new appearances and features. At this time, the landscape of the road lamps can be embodied by illuminating themselves or by attaching some decorative lamps, so that some of the landscape features of the road lamps during the day are continued at night. However, this is only part of the nighttime landscape performance of road lamps. The most attention is often the landscape nature of the artificial light environment created by the lighting of the lamps. This landscape can be used for illumination, brightness, light color, color rendering, etc. Purely technical means to measure, but more is the subjective feelings of people on the overall light environment, is an atmosphere. This kind of landscape is also the landscape extension of the function of the lamps, which is the key to grasp the nighttime landscape features of the road lamps.
2.2.3 Leap from the second landscape to the value of the third landscape
The philosopher Cicero sees the work of God as the first landscape and the artificial landscape as the second landscape. The second landscape is the landscape created by people to meet their basic needs of food, survival, comfort and safety. Only the third landscape is the landscape with design ideas.
Therefore, the pursuit of the landscape of urban road lamps is actually to hope that the lamps and lanterns can more fully explore the human factors, philosophical culture and their hidden behind the physical form and technical form on the basis of satisfying people's basic traffic and comfort and safety requirements. Its symbolic metaphor, etc., reflects the geometric composition of mathematics, mathematics, and the rich artistic ideas of human beings, realizing the leap from the second landscape to the third landscape, and becoming a bridge between people and the material world.
2.3 Street lamps as a characteristic of urban landscape elements
As a product of modern industrialization, road luminaires have their own height and volume beyond the human scale, and a neat arrangement, making it difficult for natural luminaires to be dissolved into rich and specific urban blocks. . The full transformation of things is based on a full understanding of things. Therefore, here we try to summarize some characteristics of road lamps as urban landscape elements, and provide the basis for the landscape construction of the road lighting system below.
2.3.1 Universality and diversity of regional distribution
The universality of regional distribution refers to the breadth of the distribution of road lamps in urban geospatial space. The formation, expansion and renewal of cities have always been framed and backboned by their increasingly complex road traffic systems, and road luminaires, which are important functional infrastructures, have also extended to various areas of the city. Diversity includes two levels of meaning:
(1) Variety of luminaire combination forms: According to different road characteristics, road width and road function, different cloth spacing and cloth height are adopted.
(2) The diversity of the form of the lamp itself: that different types of lamps can be used on different roads or in different areas of the same road as needed.
2.3.2 Sequence and identity of spatial distribution
Road luminaires are designed to illuminate urban roads through a combination of overall lighting. The linear extension of the road and the uniform road lighting requirements make the road lamps have a relatively fixed cloth spacing, cloth height and lamp style in the distribution of the street space, thus forming a strong order. This combination of order and the three-dimensional form of the road luminaire and the perspective of the street creates a strong guiding and directionality and the rhythm of the combination of road lighting. The so-called rhythm is actually a regular movement, in which directionality and regularity are indispensable, so the rhythm of road lamps is also a combination of order and guidance of the spatial distribution of lamps.
The identity is in terms of the location characteristics of the road luminaire distribution. Road lamps are mainly distributed on both sides or in the middle of urban roads. They are closer to the center of the street than the building interface, and they also have a certain volume and scale, so they are easy to become visual focus and have certain marking.
2.3.3 Structural and plasticity of individual shapes
Modern road lamps are industrial products with some basic structural components such as lamp holders, cantilevers, light poles, and pedestals. Plasticity means that the various parts of the luminaire and their connecting nodes can be artistically processed to a certain extent, or the landscape components can be attached to the luminaire itself.
2.3.4 Practicality and landscaping of artificial lighting
Providing basic road lighting for pedestrians and vehicles is a functional manifestation of road lighting and a fundamental reason for the existence of road lighting materials. It can be objectively measured by some photometric data. The landscaping of road luminaires and its practical functionality are interrelated. For people, almost all nighttime things must be represented by artificial lighting. Different light source colors, light distribution forms, and distribution patterns of lamps will greatly affect people's perception of things and further affect people's psychological feelings.
3 Analysis of problems in urban lighting construction at the present stage
Through the above analysis, it can be seen that the design and selection of urban street lamps is a comprehensive problem of multiple levels and aspects, and neglect or reliance on a certain aspect will be one-sided.
3.1 Question 1: One-sided promotion of "one road and one light"
Some cities have put forward the goal of â€œone road and one lightâ€ in the construction of road lighting systems. This is actually the excessive pursuit of the diversity of lamps, and the neglect of the functionality and order of lamps. The use of different luminaires for each road can increase the richness of the urban road landscape, but it also brings new problems: different styles of lamps often have great differences in lighting quality, making it difficult to guarantee the same nature. The uniformity of the lighting effect of the road; at the same time, the excessive pursuit of diversity will dilute the order and labeling of the lamps, leading to the disorder of the urban street order and the ambiguity of the overall impression of the lamps.
3.2 Problem 2: Excessive pursuit of "characteristics"
With the universality and labeling of road lamps, it is hoped that the spiritual appearance and cultural connotation of the city will be reflected in the external image of road lamps. The starting point is good. However, some city leaders have one-sided understanding of the landscape of road lamps, holding the impetuous mentality of â€œBai Qigong in one battleâ€, using the characteristics of quick and easy scale in the short-term lighting construction, â€œto make the city look new and make the city special. The "heavy duty" of the "bright" is too much in the shape of the lamps, making it the vanguard of the city's "face project" and "political performance project." As a result, the special production of the luminaire wastes too much manpower and material resources, and the styling design of the luminaire also neglects the coordination of the street space and destroys the landscape environment of the entire city.
3.3 Question 3: Excessive form of seeking new ideas
Ignore the structural and functional aspects of the luminaire and emphasize the plasticity, diversity and labeling. Road luminaire design has its own scientific and structural design. Excessive pursuit of eccentricity from the actual design and manufacture of luminaires will weaken or even destroy the functionality of the luminaire, and the actual shape will not make people feel beautiful.
3.4 Problem 4: Confusing road and landscape lighting
In fact, it is to confuse the functionality and landscaping of road lamps. A luminaire is used to illuminate things, not whether it has a certain brightness. Many people mistakenly believe that the road surface or the environment is not bright enough because the lamps themselves do not look bright enough. As long as the lamps themselves look bright, the whole environment will naturally brighten. In some places, even functional lighting fixtures have been dismantled, using street lights that look "shaky, bright, and light" or other landscape lights such as "flowers" for road lighting. The result is not only to make the road and the environment more dim, but because the direct exposure of the light source of the lamp forms a strong contrast with the environment, causing glare to pedestrians and vehicles.
Based on the above analysis, it can be seen that the deeper cause of some practical problems of current road lamps is the lack of understanding of the characteristics of the lamp landscape, and the understanding of various aspects of the lamp's own characteristics is not comprehensive enough. In the following, based on the above analysis, combined with some specific engineering examples, we will further explore how to construct the landscape of urban road lamps in a comprehensive and orderly manner.
4 road lighting landscape construction
The landscape connotation of urban road lamps is multi-layered. Its purpose is not only to reflect the combination of natural landscape and artificial environment, but also to reflect the combination of historical culture, regional characteristics and real life, to reflect the unity and harmony of urban environment, and to improve the city. The overall image is a manifestation of a comprehensive environmental form.
4.1 City scale
4.1.1 Formation of overall shape and level
Combined with the planning of urban road system and urban lighting planning, according to the corresponding road profile, summarize the layout of road lamps. For roads of the same nature, try to use the same type of lamps, the same spacing of lamps, and identify important or signs. Sexual block roads are designed for specific lighting.
4.1.2 Combination of diversity and unity Road luminaires are one of the most important landscape elements in the contours of urban roads. The entire road luminaire system in the city should be looming according to the grouping principle and have an overall style. Urban luminaire systems cannot simply adopt a constant form, while maintaining some kind of main profile
The combination of the arm, the walkway light, the advertising light box and the setting of the decorative light should be adjusted according to the specific situation. For example, Xilin Street traverses the entire Xilinhot city, crossing different areas such as the new city, the old city, the commercial area, and the residential area, considering different combinations of the same types.
4.2 street scale
Kevin Lynch believes that â€œstreetâ€ is the most important, dominant, and dynamic urban factor among the five elements of urban imagery.
Therefore, it is especially important to deal with the spatial relationship of road lamps on the street scale.
4.2.1 Sequence sense and guiding formation
The design of urban street space should mainly consider the issue of order. As Gestalt psychology believes, vision is not a mechanical record of the various elements of a visual object, but an overall grasp of meaningful styles. Order and guidance are the embodiment of a certain style of meaning. Therefore, in the lighting design of the luminaire, the same kind of luminaires should be used for the same kind of roads, and the same cloth spacing and lighting height can be used to facilitate the identification and memory of the street space, and at the same time form a strong aesthetic taste.
4.2.2 Adjustment according to the characteristics of the street itself
The same road in the city may cross different areas during its extension, and there will be different requirements for the form of the lamps. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain the uniformity of the type of the luminaire, and at the same time, it is an important factor in the unification and coordination of urban spatial characteristics. The targeted design of the road luminaires combined with the local characteristics is mainly based on the maintenance of the functional structure and contour of the luminaire itself. On the one hand, the abstraction, collage, and simulacra are combined with the details of the nodes. The graphics, patterns, etc. of the location are processed, and on the other hand, the symbolic meaning is grasped from the overall image of the lamp.
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